The Supreme Court has instructed us that: “In determining whether a federal law pre-empts circumstances statute, our task would be to ascertain Congress’ intent in enacting the federal statute at problems. Pre-emption . . . was compelled [when] Congress’ demand try clearly claimed into the statute’s language. . . .” Shaw v. Delta atmosphere Lines, Inc., 463 U.S. 85, 95, 103 S. Ct. 2890, 2899, 77 L. Ed. 2d 490 (1983) (interior quotations omitted). 4 right right Here, Congress’ preemptive demand are clearly reported when you look at the statutory language. Yet almost all choice doesn’t obey that clear, compelling demand.
The appropriate percentage of FDIA В§ 27(a) clearly claims that ” State-chartered depository that is insured . . . may, notwithstanding any State constitution or statute that will be hereby preempted when it comes to needs of the part,. . . fee on any loan . . . interest . . . during the price permitted because of the guidelines associated with the State . . . where in actuality the bank is situated.” 5 12 U.S.C. В§ 1831d(a) (emphasis included). The real question is not whether Congress designed to preempt state legislation inconsistent aided by the right it developed with respect to out-of-state banking institutions. The command that is preemptive never be better. Into the extent that “any State constitution or statute” attempts to determine, condition, impinge upon, control, restrict, or else influence the proper of an out-of-state bank to charge mortgage allowed underneath the guidelines of their charter state, that state legarelation are preempted.
The main element statutory term determining the range associated with federal right, the term upon which this matter turns, are “any.” Area 27(a) says that state-chartered insured depository organizations may charge “on any loan” interest during the rates permitted by the legislation of the charter state. 12 U.S.C. В§ 1831d(a) (emphasis included). “Any” are just a effective term.
Both the Supreme Court and also this Court are making clear that “any” does not always mean “some” or “all but a couple of,” this means “all.” For instance, in united states of america v. Gonzales, 520 U.S. 1, 117 S. Ct. 1032, 137 L. Ed. 2d 132 (1997), issue is whether or not the phrase that is statutory other term of imprisonment’ means what it says or whether it must be restricted payday loans no checking account Jackson AL to some subset of jail sentences.” Id. at 5, 117 S. Ct. at 1035 (internal quote omitted). Because of the normal, expansive meaning of the phrase “any,” therefore the lack of any restricting language when you look at the statute, the Court determined that “any term of imprisonment” suggested all terms of imprisonment, without exclusion. Id.
In cases like this, we must interpret the statutory expression “any loan” to suggest all loans without exclusion, in the same way the Supreme Court in Gonzales interpreted the statutory expression “any other term of imprisonment” to suggest all the other terms of imprisonment without exclusion, 520 U.S. at 5, 117 S. Ct. at 1035; just like the Supreme Court in Alvarez-Sanchez interpreted “any police force officer” to suggest all police officers without exclusion, 511 U.S. at 358, 114 S. Ct. at 1604; and simply once we in Merritt interpreted “any termination” to mean all terminations of any sort without exclusion, 120 F.3d at 1185-86. 6
Because loans that out-of-state banking institutions render through in-state agents is inside the broad range associated with the term “any loan,” В§ 27(a) preempts state laws and regulations that make an effort to manage or limit the attention prices which may be charged on those loans. Or in other words, В§ 27(a) preempts exactly exactly what the continuing State of Georgia has been doing. It really is as if the Georgia General construction rewrote the main element language of the federal provision that is statutory including a phrase, such that it checks out:
State-chartered depository that is insured . . . may . . . fee on any loan . . . interest . . . At the rate allowed by the statutory laws and regulations for the State . . . where in actuality the bank is found.